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1. ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
31st October 1517
The Start of The Protestant Reformation
German priest Martin Luther wrote a disputation against clerical abuses, especially nepotism, simony, usury, pluralism, and the sale of indulgences. It is generally believed that, according to university custom, on 31 October 1517, Luther posted the ninety-five theses, which he had composed in Latin, on the door of All Saints' Church in Wittenberg. However, whether this actually happened with the theses themselves is disputed.
On the same day, Luther sent a hand-written copy, joined with honorable comments, to the archbishop Albert of Mainz and Magdeburg, who was in charge of the indulgence sales, and to the bishop of Brandenburg, the superior of Luther at the time.
Within two weeks, copies of the Theses had spread throughout Germany; within two months throughout Europe. In January 1518 Christoph von Scheurl and other friends of Luther translated the Ninety-Five Theses from Latin into German, printed, and widely copied them, making the controversy one of the first in history to be aided by the printing press.
The theses struck a chord with many, both in the clergy and laity, who were exasperated with hypocrisy and corruption within the Roman Catholic church. Ultimately there was a polarisation of views around authority - those who held that the final authority lay with the bible not the church became known as "Protestants".
On 15 June 1520, the Pope warned Luther with the papal bull (edict) Exsurge Domine that he risked excommunication unless he recanted 41 sentences drawn from his writings, including the 95 Theses, within 60 days. On 10th December Luther publicly set fire to the bull and decretals at Wittenberg. The pope consequently excommunicated Luther on 3rd January 1521.
With Luther gaining rapid support, particularly amongst princes in the north of the Holy Roman Empire, the Roman Catholic hierarchy attempted to restore its authority by the Diet (church conference) of Worms on 18th April 1521. A famous theological debate took place between Luther, who was guaranteed safe passage, and theologian Johann Eck. Ultimately Luther refused to recant any of his writings, and was condemned as a heretic.
Most northern princes however, who were generally worse off financially and politically because of their obligations to the Roman Catholic church, supported Luther and broke away from the church, supporting Luther's new church. The Protestant revolution was now permanent.
The Roman Catholic church responded with internal reforms and reorganization known as the "Counter-Reformation" which successfully regained many areas that initially turned Protestant. Permanent losses were limited to northern Germany, northern Switzerland, Holland, Scandinavia, England and Scotland.
2. TODAY IN MY LIFE
Shift 2 of the Weekend Job
Twitter Followers = 2,028 (no change)
Non-followed eliminated = 2
Unfollowers eliminated = 0
New Followers followed back = 1
Spammers not followed back = 1
3. TODAY'S SELF-OBSERVATION
On the personal front, development has reached a very interesting point. I can now cease internal thought at will, but it takes continual concentration to do it. I am now visualizing my mind as a strong young dog on a leash that I have to keep tight to control the dog.
Internal silence does not mean the absence of mental activity. There's a conscious feeling of "knowing" from which actions occur. These actions are not flawless, because they still only come from my imperfect mind, but they are considerably better that those that arise from random thought. Eliminating random thought considerably decreases the degree of internal chaos.
It's taken me a very long time to reach this point as I've needed much evidence and experience to convince me that intuition can govern this character better than thought can. I am no longer in any doubt. The next short-term objective is to spend the majority of the day in internal silence.
4. TODAY'S QUESTION FOR YOU
Which part of you can run you better?
5. TODAY'S WEATHER IN BRADFORD
Dry, calm and mild throughout, with plenty of sunny/clear spells
Max Temp = 14 degC at 1pm
Min Temp = 11 degC at midnight
Sunrise at 07:04
Sunset at 16:36
Weathertrack: A very large anticyclone over Eastern Europe will extend over England and Wales, drawing mild air from the south and restricting a long weather front to Scotland and Ireland
Air Pressure: 1019 millibars and rising
6. TODAY'S ONELINER
I'm too lazy to write an autobiography. That's the story of my life. :D
7. NOW THAT'S FUNNY!
Kristen Carney on Gentleman's Clubs
The Romans invented central heating and would warm rooms from under the floor using what was called a hypocaust, literally “heat from below.” Homes of some rich people had both running water and central heating.
9. ZEN WISDOM
Adversity reveals your true nature.