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1. ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
9th June 721: The Battle of Toulouse
This was a significant battle that halted the advance of Umayyad Moors into Western Europe, and Islam's first major defeat on their Western advance.
Christian Visigothic Spain had been conquered by the Moors, who were Muslims from North Africa, and was now the Umayyad province of Al-Andalus.
Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, the wali (governor) of Al-Andalus, built up a strong army from Umayyad territories to conquer Aquitaine, a large duchy in the southwest of modern-day France, formally under Frankish sovereignty, but in practice almost independent in the hands of the dukes of Aquitaine. Al-Samh's aim was to take the Garonne River valley, capture Toulouse and open up a vast territory stretching all the way to the Atlantic and back south through Andalusia to the Mediterranean and the Maghrib.
Al-Samh's army included siege engines, infantry, a few horsemen and a number of mercenaries, as well as Basque slingers. He besieged the city of Toulouse, then Aquitaine's most important city, and Duke Odo of Aquitaine, also known as Eudes, immediately left to find help. He asked the assistance of Charles Martel, preferred to wait and see rather than help his southern rival.
Odo returned three months later with Aquitanian and Frankish troops, just as the city was about to surrender, and attacked the Umayyad investing force on June 9. The Aquitanian victory was essentially the result of a classic enveloping movement by Odo. After Odo originally fled, the Umayyads became overconfident, and instead of maintaining strong outer defenses around their siege camp, and continuously scouting, did neither. Thus, when Odo returned, he was able to launch an almost total surprise attack on the siege force, scattering it with the first attack, and slaughtering units that were resting or fled without weapons or armour.
Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani managed to get away with a fraction of his forces, but died shortly thereafter, leaving Anbasa ibn Suhaym Al-Kalbi (721-725) as governor.
Though remaining the dominant power in the region, the defeat halted any further Moorish advance into Western Europe. This first defeat did not however end Moorish ambitions for the conquest of Western Europe, but every subsequent invasion of France was also defeated and after 735, as Islamic power declined and Frankish power rose, no further invasions were attempted.
2. TODAY IN MY LIFE
Business Promotional Work
Quality Missus Time
Twitter Followers = 2,256 (no change)
Never-followed unfollowers eliminated = 1
Followed unfollowers eliminated = 2
New Followers followed back = 2@TrevCampbell, @nic9nein9
Spammers not followed back = 1
3. TODAY'S SELF-OBSERVATION
With Thursday daytime not particularly popular with clients, Thursday is my easiest-going day of the week, though as carer-housekeeper I don't get a day off as such, just blocks of me time in each day. That's certainly not a complaint though! I may be possessed by time-greed, but I know I am nevertheless blessed with abundant me-time.
I also doubt that boredom will ever again be an option! I always have too much difference to make, both externally and internally, where I am working to build by focus and make it ever-stronger. With my life-purpose decided, my awareness can just get on and enjoy the movie.
Daughter and Son had their first encounter for over a year when Daughter, now mobile, dropped Missus back home from the Doctor's. Whilst Daughter has nothing but hatred for me, she would love to have a relationship with Son. Son however, with a lot of bad memories of being at the receiving end of Daughter's narcissism, whilst curious to see her develop, is suspicious. He kept the talk small. I've made it plain that I have no objection if he restarts a relationship with her, and that he doesn't have to choose between us.
I get the impression that Daughter wants to believe she never did anything wrong, or that it didn't really matter, or that what she did happened in some other dimension. Son however has painful memories that feel like yesterday. What with a recent breakup and finding out his ex had been lying to him for two years, he's not keen to get involved with ANY woman on ANY sort of basis. Unlike Missus, through whom Daughter poses a threat, Son has his own life to lead and must make his own decisions. From a short distance I shall watch his story unfold with interest.
4. TODAY'S QUESTION FOR YOU
What is your attitude to those that hate you?
5. TODAY'S WEATHER IN BRADFORD
Cloudy and mild with sunny periods
1023 millibars and falling
6. TODAY'S ONELINER
Don't you just hate it when men try to ruin a perfectly good argument by using weapons like "facts" and "logic"? :D
7. NOW THAT'S FUNNY!
Steve Hofstetter deals with hecklers - very funny! :D
Americans buy over 29 million bottles of water every year. Making all those bottles uses 17 million barrels of crude oil annually, which would be enough fuel to keep 1 million cars on the road for one year. Only 13% of those bottles are recycled. Plastic bottles take centuries to decompose, and if they are burned, they release toxic byproducts such as chlorine gas and ash containing heavy metals.
9. ZEN WISDOM
Doing anything will make enemies, doing nothing will make oppressors.