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1. ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
7th January 1558
England loses Calais, their last possession in France
Calais had been seized by England in 1347, during the Hundred Years War. After England's total defeat in that war, it had managed to retain Calais. On 25th July 1544, Mary I of England had married Philip II of Spain, uniting the foreign policies of England and Spain.
In 1557 France went to war with Spain, and therefore England, over Spanish possessions in Italy. The French were heavily defeated in the Battle of St. Quentin in Picardy, leaving northern France open to invasion. King Henry II of France was particularly worried that an Anglo-Spanish army would use Calais as a springboard to march on Paris.
In response, Henry called on Francis Duke of Guise, who had raised a large army in the south to attack Italy. Francis was ordered north and promoted to lieutenant-general of France, then ordered to attack Calais. Beginning on January 1 1558, in a series of surprise attacks, Francis rapidly took the forts defending Calais. By 7 January Calais was defenceless and Thomas, Lord Wentworth, in charge of the city, duly surrendered, giving the French army not only Calais but three months supply of food and nearly 300 guns to turn against the Spanish.
In April 1559, in the treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis, signed on behalf of England by Spain, gave Calais to France in return for financial compensation.
In 1562 England, now under Elizabeth I, made a final attempt to regain Calais by storming the port of Le Havre and holding it as ransom for the return of Calais. However the French re-took Le Havre in 1563 and the English, threatened by the Spanish, were forced to make peace with France in the Treaty of Troyes in 1564, ending any hope of the return of Calais.
2. TODAY IN MY LIFE
Client prep and session
Twitter Followers = 2,067 (up 1)
Non-followed eliminated = 0
Unfollowers eliminated = 0
New Followers followed back = 1
Spammers not followed back =0
3. TODAY'S SELF-OBSERVATION
In the absence of external threats, and all my relationships settled, I can focus more on my Practice and getting my name out there.
Spiritually, I am very much enjoying the bliss that comes from the absence of internal conflict, and will continue to enjoy simply being.
4. TODAY'S QUESTION FOR YOU
What steps are you taking towards fulfilment, wellbeing and happiness?
5. TODAY'S WEATHER IN BRADFORD
Air Pressure: 979 millibars and falling
6. TODAY'S ONELINER
Apparently following your dreams doesn't mean taking a nap at work. :D
7. NOW THAT'S FUNNY!
Russell Howard on American guns
During the “chest bursting” scene in Alien (1986), director Ridley Scott had the actors unexpectedly showered with actual entrails bought from a nearby butcher shop so that their screams of horror would be real.
9. ZEN WISDOM
How aware are we of our own inner life, our spirituality—something so intangible yet so priceless? How much effort do we make to perceive that which is not obvious, which can neither be seen nor heard? To be meaningful, life requires a spiritual dimension.